Everything you need to know about an ISMS

Written by Ivar van Duuren

June 20, 2024

security island

As a security officer, you have the important task of keeping information security in order. If you want to become ISO-certified for information security within your organization, setting up an Information Security Management System (ISMS) is a mandatory component.

But what exactly does an ISMS entail? What does it look like and what components does it consist of? In this article, we address these questions in detail.

What is an ISMS?

An ISMS is a systematic approach to managing sensitive company information so that it remains secure. It is a system where you record which people, processes, and IT systems are involved in the information security in your company.

With an ISMS, you identify and manage the threats your organization faces and what measures you take to minimize those threats. All in a structured way. The most basic way organizations manage their information security is in an Excel spreadsheet. However, more professional organizations use an online ISMS with integrations to SharePoint and Microsoft 365.  

The purpose of an ISMS is to ensure the confidentiality, availability, and integrity of data. You do this by implementing appropriate policies, procedures, guidelines, and associated resources and activities. Thus, an ISMS helps you systematically manage security risks and ensures that they remain under control.

Why is an ISMS important?

There are several important reasons to implement an ISMS within your organization:

  • Protect business information: An ISMS protects your organization’s confidential and sensitive data from security incidents such as data breaches, hacks, and cybercrime.
  • Comply with laws and regulations: An ISMS helps you comply with relevant information security and privacy laws and regulations, such as the AVG/GDPR.
  • Customer trust and reputation: With a good ISMS, you demonstrate that you handle data with care. This strengthens customer trust and your reputation in the market.
  • Business continuity: Incidents and disruptions caused by security problems can seriously disrupt business operations. With an ISMS, you reduce these risks.
  • Awareness and knowledge: Implementing an ISMS creates awareness and knowledge about information security within your organization.

So an ISMS is essential to protect your company’s information and systems, manage risks, and meet the requirements of customers and other stakeholders.

What’s in your ISMS?

A good ISMS consists of several key components:

1. Policies and objectives

Here you lay down what the principles and goals of the ISMS are. What do you want to achieve? Examples of information security policies are:

  • Acceptable Use Policy: Rules for responsible use of company resources such as computers, internet, and e-mail by employees.
  • Password Policy: Guidelines for strong passwords, periodic changes, and secure storage.
  • Classification of information: Categorization of data based on sensitivity, with associated access and protection requirements.
  • Mobile device policy: Conditions for secure use of mobile devices such as smartphones and laptops to access company data.
  • Data breach reporting: Internal procedures for identifying, investigating, reporting, and handling security incidents and data breaches.
  • Supplier policies: Requirements for external parties regarding careful handling of your data.

2. Risk Assessment

You identify security risks to your organization’s information and systems. How likely is it that a threat will occur and what is the impact? Some common risks are:

  • Data breaches: The inadvertent leakage of sensitive information, such as through a hack, human error, or loss of equipment.
  • Malware and viruses: Malicious software that can disrupt systems, and steal or encrypt data for ransom (ransomware).
  • Unauthorized access: Unauthorized access to confidential data or systems, whether physical or digital.
  • Internal threats: Risks caused by in-house employees, such as data theft, misuse of authority, or negligence.
  • DDoS attacks: Cyber attacks that overload systems or websites to make them inaccessible.
  • Legal and regulatory compliance: Risks caused by failure to comply with relevant legislation, such as the AVG/GDPR for data protection.

3. Risk treatment

Based on the risk assessment, determine what measures are needed to reduce risks to an acceptable level. Examples of measures that organizations implement are:

  • Access control: Systems for identification, authentication, and authorization of users, such as passwords, multi-factor authentication, and Identity & Access Management (IAM).
  • Encryption: Encryption of sensitive data, both in storage (data-at-rest) and in transmission (data-in-transit), to prevent unauthorized access.
  • Network security: Measures such as firewalls, VPNs, network segmentation, and monitoring to protect the network infrastructure.
  • Malware protection: Antivirus software, spam filters, and other solutions to prevent malware infections and propagation.
  • Patch management: Timely installation of software updates and patches to address known vulnerabilities in systems.
  • Logging and monitoring: Recording and analyzing system activities to detect anomalies and security incidents.
  • Physical security: Measures such as access control, camera surveillance, and alarms to restrict physical access to IT systems and sensitive information.
  • Awareness programs: Training and educating employees on information security to encourage secure behavior and reduce risks from human error.

4. Implementation

The chosen security measures are implemented in the organization. Consider technical solutions, but also processes, procedures, and guidelines. 

5. Monitoring and evaluation

You continuously monitor whether the ISMS is still working properly and whether the security measures are effective. Where necessary, you make adjustments.

ISMS and ISO certification

An important standard for setting up an ISMS is ISO 27001. This international standard specifies requirements for establishing, implementing, maintaining, and continuously improving a documented ISMS.

Although it is not mandatory, many organizations choose to have their ISMS certified to ISO 27001. This has several benefits:

  • It demonstrates that your ISMS meets an internationally recognized standard and follows best practices.
  • An ISO 27001 certification increases the confidence of customers, partners, and other stakeholders in your approach to information security.
  • In some tenders, ISO 27001 certification is a requirement to compete.
  • It keeps you on your toes. To remain certified, you must demonstrate that your ISMS continues to meet the requirements.

So an ISO 27001 certification is not a goal in itself, but supports and reinforces the benefits of an ISMS.

Continuous improvement of your ISMS

An effective ISMS is not a one-time project, but a continuous process. By periodically evaluating risks, policies, and measures and adjusting them where necessary, you continuously improve the information security within your organization. It is crucial to increase the involvement and awareness within the entire organization.

As a security officer, do you really want to make a difference in the field of information security? Then an ISMS is the way to go. By systematically addressing risks, establishing clear policies, and taking the right measures, you take your information security to the next level. This way, you not only protect your organization’s interests but also strengthen the trust of all stakeholders.


An ISMS is indispensable for every security officer to properly manage his organization’s information security. Through a systematic and structured approach with policy, risk assessment, measures, implementation, and evaluation, you manage security risks and protect your organization’s interests.

Although setting up an ISMS requires effort, the benefits far outweigh that. And with an ISO 27001 certification, you also show the outside world that your information security is in order according to international standards.


Also read: what is GRC software?

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